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This work also suggests that the court and scientific requirements for standards of reliability are not yet fulfilled by actual ink dating methods for regulatory use in expert testimony.The relative and absolute age of roller and gel ink entries determined by gas chromatography (GC) and UV–vis methods are presented in this paper.This study aims to overcome these drawbacks by exploring the feasibility of dating inks based on their spectroscopic UV–vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra monitoring combined with a Partial Least-Squares (PLS) multivariate modelling.Inoxcrom® ink samples were exposed to artificial aging, their reflectance spectra were measured and a multivariate calibration was applied.It was also observed that the dyes from the ink strokes did not show significant degradation after one year of storage in the dark.In conclusion, the storage conditions of a questioned document and the initial composition of the dyes in the ink have to be known for correct interpretation of the age of an ink entry.
LDI was found adequate and very useful for the analysis of ballpoint dyes directly from paper without further pretreatment.
Then, strokes from the same ballpoint were aged naturally in the dark or under the influence of light over one year and then analyzed.
The results show that the degradation of these dyes strongly depends on light fluence.
Since its beginnings, the forensic field of questioned documents has been concerned with the dating of inks. Disagreements about the feasibility of current methods have been voiced worldwide among the scientific and legal communities.
This controversy has been the starting point of the present work.